In Islamic state Allah has the superior authority .So the concept of sovereignty occupies central position in modern state. It is defined as a theory of politics that leads to an ultimate overseer in decision making process of state and which explains rules and regulations. Most powers are exercised by government.
But Islamic point of view is very different. Allah is supreme authority; all powers rest with Him solely. However He has delegated power to mankind for conducting worldly affairs.
Islamic state is no less than a recent govt. It performs many function, which shed light on its role. These mentioned below:
Providing Basic Necessaries
It is the first and foremost duty of the state to provide necessities of life to the mass. That is clothing, sheltering and feeding facilities. No one remains, hungry, unhoused, unclothed in the country.
Social and Economic Justice
Al-Adl-Wal- Ihsan is important tools of economic program. So there should be balance among all sects irrespective of caste, creed or color. No distinction should make as regards, employment and economic development.
Everyone permitted to select a profession of his choice or he can conduct any kind of business within limits. He can earn his livelihood, support his family. But distinction is made between Halal and Haram
Islamic state should lay down some guiding principles for spending. Lavish type of life must be prohibited, simple style be popularized and no one be allowed expend more than his income.
Helping Weak Person
If there are some individuals who are economically weak and are not able to pull on, the state must take suitable measures for helping them also. Similarly needy, crippled and some others of this type, should be helped by the government. Some schemes of social security launched within the country.
Safe-Guard against Exploitation
Some powerful landlord, industrialists and monopolists encroach upon the rights of laboring class. They not given due share of their labor. Hence, state should intervene and protect them from exploitation.
Prices should remain under safe limits; otherwise they pose many difficulties for common people. There should be neither inflationary nor deflationary pressure in the economy. It is the duty of the Muslim state to keep vigilant eye on price.
Utilization of Resources
The natural and human resources are very significant for achieving economic growth. Hence the state should make maximum utilization of these resources. New resources explored. Educational and training facilities are provided to men, so as to make them efficient and honest.
Balance between Private and Public Sectors
If balance not maintained between these two sectors, there is danger of many evils to take roots in the society.