Law

Who Cannot Sue

Who Cnnnot Sue

Who Cnnnot Sue

Every person has a right to file a suit against the wrong-doers but following have personal disability in Law of Torts and cannot sue in some cases.

Convict

A convict can under English law sue for wrongs to his person and property like any other person.

Married Women

Husband/Wife is considered one in the eye of law. A married woman could not file a suit for any Tort committed by third person unless her husband joined with her as plaintiff.
But after Married Women’s Property Act, 1882, now she can sue for Tort against any person including her husband.



Alien Enemy

An alien enemy cannot sue for any Tort committed against him in your country but after getting permission from government, he can sue.

Corporation

A corporation can file a suit in respect of a Tort committed against him. So there are certain personal Torts in which corporations cannot file a suit against anyone. Like: Defamation cannot be committed against a corporation and corporation cannot file a suit for defamation.

Unincorporated Associations

Associations which are not registered like corporations, they cannot file a suit for a Tort committed against them. A man can file a suit against the member of that corporation only.

Like: Ejaz V. member of that association.

Child in male, infant, minor

An infant or minor cannot file a suit but they can file a suit for any wrong committed against them through their next friend of guardian.

Insolvents and Bankrupts

Insolvents and bankrupts cannot file a suit for any Tort committed against them, but the receiver of his property can file a suit on behalf of that person.
Source of Financing

Equity Finance

It is the owner or business man himself. Who contribute to the business finance? It is his personal or family saving. He also borrows from his friend and relative such finance is get against personal securities.They are interest free. In case of partnership the business capital expand with the partners have. The finance multiplies with the expansion of business. Joint stock company is trust, cartel, pool and co- operative society multiple of business finance. The volume of business finance expands. The corporate saving (undistributed profit of business or organization) are supplementing business finance.

Financing by Trading

The farmer produces raw material. He applies is to the producer on credit. So he gets the payment in future. Some time the producer supplies the product to the agencies small down payment. Hence the agencies provided goods to the wholesaler dealers on credit. They also provide the goods to the retail dealers on credit. The retailer dealers cater to need of the consumer on monthly credit basis. The farmer also gets the goods on credit from the village shopkeeper. In all such cases every person/agencies is financing the trade and commerce of other. Some time the consumer makes advances to the producer on placing order. It is also made of financing by trading. The joint stock companies issue and sell the bound and debenture in order to collect funds for financing their trade.

Institutional Financing

Banks

Banks advance loan against collateral securities. It creates the credit against primary deposit. So it opens letter of credit and discounts the bill of exchange to finance trade. It also provides finance for the purchase of stock of goods packing and storage etc. under the red and green clauses of letter of credit. The bank also finances the importer against trust receipt. Bank invests and finance in the share of newly floated companies.

Special Agencies

There are some special agencies every where to feed and finance their respective fields. So they have the service of expert beside financial resources. In Pakistan, Zaria Taraqiati Bank Limited finance agricultural. Industrial development bank of Pakistan, National Development Finance Corporation and P.I.C.I Provide finance industrial on long and medium term basis. I.C.P.B.E.L, NIT invests their capital in the newly floated companies. Small Business Finance Corporation to finance small businessman and promote their business