Trend of current leaderships are transnational, charismatic and transformational leadership.These leadership style are discussed as under.
The political scientist and historian James Macgregor Burns (1978) developed a term of transnational leaderships. He describe an approach in which managers motivate employees to perform as expected. Therefore by clarifying task requirements and by providing rewards in exchange for employee efforts towards achieving the goals. The reciprocal mutual exchange of work for pay and other exchanges that takes place occur throughout whole time to the organization. Therefore all organization members satisfied about working together toward attaining everyday goals. So transnational leadership can be more effective in the environment of everyday management. Where the focus is on maintaining current organizational performance or on dealing with well – structural problems. When managers apply transnational leadership, they are staying on course toward established goals by handling routine tasks efficiently and effectively.
Max Weber, a sociologist, was the first person to discuss charismatic leaderships. He defined charisma from the Greek for “gift” as a certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of these the individual concerned is treated as a leader. Weber argued that charismatic leadership was one of several ideal types of authority.
Robert House was the first researcher to consider charismatic leadership in terms of organization behavior. According to House’s charismatic leadership theory, followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leaderships abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
In this type of leaderships, the leaders motivate their followers to increase their own benefits for the betterment of the organization. They effect deeply and surprising on their followers. So they focus on the coming damages and follower’s individual needs. They help the followers to solve their problems and try to change their mind from the issues. Hence they have cap ability to awake, motivate and encourage followers to work hard and to achieve the group goals. Transformational leaders guide and co-operate their followers to become innovative and creative. They work according to the goals.
The followers of that leaders try to achieve the desired goals of the organization and believe that the goals they are trying to achieve are important for them. Hence Such leaders have some common characteristics like sincerity, honesty and loyalty. They develop the organization as a family, develop personal relationships, encourage social relationships serve as a role model, collective approach, innovation, and team work.